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  • Other extra temporal lobe epilepsies


    Extra temporal lobe epilepsies (ETLE) are characterized by the seizures arising from foci outside the temporal lobe. They can arise from following locations in the brain:  

    • Frontal lobe ( located at the front of the head)

    • Parietal lobe (located at the top of the head)

    • Occipital lobe (located at the back of the head)

    • Hypothalamic hamartoma 

     Frontal Lobe Epilepsy (FLE)
    • Second most commonly found epilepsy in adults

    • Patients usually complains of non-specific, unexplainable feeling, often localized to the head

    • Asymmetric tonic seizures are often preceded by a somatosensory aura

    • Patient may experience autonomic auras like nausea or palpitations as well as emotional auras such as fear

    • Seizures are of significantly shorter duration and usually last less than 1 min

    • Consciousness is usually preserved in seizures 

     Parietal lobe epilepsy (PLE)
    • Accounts for a very small percentage of extra temporal epilepsies 

    • Clinical manifestation of seizures is generally silent

    • Patient experience somatosensory auras that include  

      • Paresthetic sensations like feeling of numbness, “pins and needles” sensation and an unpleasant crawling sensation 

      • Dysesthetic sensations 

      • Painful sensations 

    Occipital Lobe Epilepsy (OLE)
    •  Account for 2-13% of extra temporal epilepsies 
    • Signs and symptoms can be either due to discharge from the occipital lobe itself or due to discharge propagation outside occipital lobe

    • Visual hallucination is considered one of the hallmark of the occipital lobe seizures

     Hypothalamic hamartoma Epilepsy  
    • Characterized by gelastic seizures that are usually the first seizure type and occur very early in life
    •  Seizures are usually very brief (duration < 20 s) and frequent (usually with multiple seizures per day)  Diagnosis of extra temporal epilepsy
    The diagnosis of epilepsy originating from extra temporal foci requires thorough clinical and neurological examination along with following diagnostic tests:  
    • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) 

    • Positron Emission Computed Tomography (PET) 

    • Mapping of blood flow (ictal SPECT) during a seizure

    • Extra temporal Surgery

      Extra temporal surgery using latest technology, including improving MRI, stereo taxis and microsurgery techniques is performed to treat most of the epileptic syndromes arising from extra temporal region.   


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    Dr Shyam Sundar K

    MBBS , MS (Gen Surg), M.Ch. (Neuro) ReadMore

    Dr.Shyam Sundar Krishnan
    MBBS (Chennai), MS (Gen Surg), M.Ch. (Neuro)

    New No. 10, Old no 11, Parameswari Nagar,
    3rd Street, ADYAR,CHENNAI- 600 020,
    Tamil Nadu, India.

    +91 9952072279,+91 9962072279 shyamsundar_krishnan@yahoo.com
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